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Accessibilité et insularité. Volume I - Position et projet scientifique (rapport de synthèse)

Abstract : The first volume of this HDR revolves around issues of accessibility and insularity. Accessibility is trompe-l’oeil. Islands close to the continent or another island area may be underserved, sometimes distant in time, unlike islands that are geographically distant may be perfectly connected and inserted into the exchanges. This HDR work aims to understand the fabric of island accessibility by dissecting the interwoven relationships and their multiple variations. Accessibility is defined as the greater or lesser ease with which a place can be reached from one or more other places using all or part of the means of transport in effect It constitutes a primordial factor in the opening up of the islands, and establishes the dialectic opening-closing of these territories. However, it has to be borne in mind that accessibility is just one of the parameters, among many others, of insularity. This work is thus part of the field of transport geography. It concerns itself with island gateways, in this case ports and airports, whether they are modest local infrastructures or powerful international complexes. Ports and airports are thus the instruments and symbols of a form of "desinsularization". In the transport sector, the process of "desinsularization" could mean the opening up of the islands, satisfied in a complete accessibility, through communications. However, the perfectibility of the means of transport, levels of economics development, politicals capacities and wills or regional positioning favor or hinder accessibility. This game of modulations generates and translates profound disparities between the islands. Thus, there is the question of the topology of island networks. My approach has been inspired, even dictated, by this geographical reality concretized by the myriad of isolated island units, even though some are located a stone's throw from a larger territory, placed on the indigo canvas of the Indian Ocean. A group of islands located in the south-west of the Indian Ocean, (from the Comoros to Rodrigues, from the Seychelles to Mauritius, from Nosy Be to La Reunion, via Mayotte), is at the core of my research. This area is remarkable in that, beyond a handful of common points, it offers a great diversity of political, economic, geographical situations, that are worthy of academic study. Accessibility has muliple facettes. This work allows us to understand the variations and dynamics of accessibility, maritime and air, in the island territories and the challenges they face. Four island specificities in terms of accessibility have been identified. Finally, in addition to the comparative dimension, this Ability proposes a typology of insular accessibility.
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Marie-Annick Lamy-Giner. Accessibilité et insularité. Volume I - Position et projet scientifique (rapport de synthèse). Géographie. Université de La Réunion, 2019. ⟨tel-02481092⟩

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