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Variable response to electric shark deterrents in bull sharks, Carcharhinus leucas

Abstract : Although relatively rare, human-shark interactions and sharks bites are increasing globally, which has led to the development of various mitigation measures. Electric shark deterrents (ESDs) have, so far, been the most efective personal deterrents, but have only been scientifcally tested on one of the species most frequently responsible for shark bites, i.e. white shark (Carcharodon carcharias). We tested the efectiveness of fve ESDs (E-Shark Force, NoShark, Rpela v2, Freedom+Surf, Freedom+Surf—Shortboard) on bull sharks, Carcharhinus leucas, over a period of 21 days in September 2019, in New Caledonia. Standardised bait was attached 30 cm below an experimental board that had an active ESD for up to 15 min, or until a bull shark touched the bait or the board. We compared the numbers of baits taken, numbers of passes and reactions around the board, as well as the distance between the sharks and the board among ESDs and against a control board with bait and no active ESD. The Freedom+Surf was the most efective ESD, reducing the amounts of baits taken by 42.3%, while the Rpela v2 and Freedom+Surf—Shortboard also signifcantly reduced the number of baits taken by 16.5% and 16.2% respectively. Mean distance between sharks and the bait was not afected by the ESDs, but the number of approaches and the proportion of reactions were both signifcantly higher when the Freedom+Surf was active compared to other ESDs. The efectiveness of all ESDs decreased over time, with the likelihood of the bait being taken increasing and the number of approaches and distance between sharks and the bait decreasing. Our fndings show that the ability of ESDs to deter bull shark varies between products, with the Freedom+Surf resulting in the most behavioural changes, followed by the Rpela v2 and Freedom+Surf—Shortboard. However, none of the products tested completely stopped sharks from taking the bait.
Keywords : shark
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Submitted on : Tuesday, December 8, 2020 - 11:03:53 AM
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A Gauthier, E Chateauminois, M Hoarau, J Gadenne, E Hoarau, et al.. Variable response to electric shark deterrents in bull sharks, Carcharhinus leucas. Scientific Reports, Nature Publishing Group, 2020, 10, pp.17869. ⟨10.1038/s41598-020-74799-y⟩. ⟨hal-03045880⟩

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