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Journal Articles Solid Earth Year : 2018

Integrating field, textural, and geochemical monitoring to track eruption triggers and dynamics: a case study from Piton de la Fournaise

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Lucia Gurioli
Ivan Vlastélic
Séverine Moune
Simon Thivet
Marina Valer
  • Function : Author
  • PersonId : 783947
  • IdRef : 203932382
Patrick Bachèlery
Mhammed Benbakkar
Nicolas Cluzel
Jean-Luc Devidal

Abstract

The 2014 eruption at Piton de la Fournaise (PdF), La Réunion, which occurred after 41 months of quiescence, began with surprisingly little precursory activity and was one of the smallest so far observed at PdF in terms of duration (less than 2 days) and volume (less than 0.4 × 10 6 m 3). The pyroclastic material was composed of golden basaltic pumice along with fluidal, spiny iridescent and spiny opaque basaltic scoria. Density analyses performed on 200 lapilli reveal that while the spiny opaque clasts are the densest (1600 kg m −3) and most crystalline (55 vol. %), the golden pumices are the least dense (400 kg m −3) and crystalline (8 vol. %). The con-nectivity data indicate that the fluidal and golden (Hawaiian-like) clasts have more isolated vesicles (up to 40 vol. %) than the spiny (Strombolian-like) clasts (0–5 vol. %). These tex-tural variations are linked to primary pre-eruptive magma storage conditions. The golden and fluidal fragments track the hotter portion of the melt, in contrast to the spiny fragments and lava that mirror the cooler portion of the shallow reservoir. Exponential decay of the magma ascent and output rates through time revealed depressurization of the source during which a stratified storage system was progressively tapped. Increasing syn-eruptive degassing and melt–gas de-coupling led to a decrease in the explosive intensity from early fountaining to Strombolian activity. The geochemical results confirm the absence of new input of hot magma into the 2014 reservoir and confirm the emission of a single shallow , differentiated magma source, possibly related to residual magma from the November 2009 eruption. Fast volatile ex-solution and crystal–melt separation (second boiling) were triggered by deep pre-eruptive magma transfer and stress field change. Our study highlights the possibility that shallow magma pockets can be quickly reactivated by deep processes without mass or energy (heat) transfer and produce hazardous eruptions with only short-term elusive precursors.
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hal-01858790 , version 1 (21-08-2018)

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Attribution - CC BY 4.0

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Lucia Gurioli, Andrea Di Muro, Ivan Vlastélic, Séverine Moune, Simon Thivet, et al.. Integrating field, textural, and geochemical monitoring to track eruption triggers and dynamics: a case study from Piton de la Fournaise. Solid Earth, 2018, 9 (2), pp.431-455. ⟨10.5194/se-9-431-2018⟩. ⟨hal-01858790⟩
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