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Cell differentiation, stem cell regulation and impact of the mutations : a stochastic approach

Abstract : This thesis focuses on understanding the mechanisms of stem cell differentiation leading to the production of red blood cells (a mechanism called erythropoiesis). To this end, we have developed different mathematical modelling leading to an understanding at different levels. Firstly, we have built and calibrated a model with 8 ordinary differential equations to describe the dynamics of 6 populations of cells in steady-state and stress erythropoiesis. The study of in vivo experimental data, realized by our collaborators St´ephane Giraudier (hematologist) and Evelyne Lauret (INSERM), showed the need of two equations to model erythropoiesis regulations. Modeling calibration was performed using biological data and a stochastic optimization algorithm called CMA-ES. This model highlighted the importance of the self-renewal capacity of the erythropoietic cells in the production of red blood cells. The development of a 3-dimensional probabilistic model then allowed us to understand the dynamic consequences of this capacity on the production of red blood cells. The study of this model required changes of scale in size and time revealing a so-called slow/fast system. Using averaging methods, we described the large population approximation of the number of each cell type. We have also mathematically quantified the large fluctuations in the number of red blood cells, biologically observed. Finally, we constructed a model to understand the influence of long periods of inactivity of mutant stem cells in the production of red blood cells. Mutant stem cells, which are in low numbers in the organism compared to healthy cells, randomly switch between an active and an inactive state. The different size scale between the cell populations led us to study the dynamics of a 4-dimensional piecewise deterministic Markov process. We showed the existence of a unique invariant probability measure towards which the process converges in total variation, and we identified this limits.
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Submitted on : Thursday, October 29, 2020 - 2:12:11 PM
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Celine Bonnet. Cell differentiation, stem cell regulation and impact of the mutations : a stochastic approach. Probability [math.PR]. Institut Polytechnique de Paris, 2020. English. ⟨NNT : 2020IPPAX016⟩. ⟨tel-02983173⟩

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