Stratospheric ozone depletion inside the volcanic plume shortly after the 2022 Hunga Tonga eruption - Université de La Réunion Access content directly
Journal Articles Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Year : 2023

Stratospheric ozone depletion inside the volcanic plume shortly after the 2022 Hunga Tonga eruption

Luis Millán

Abstract

Abstract. Near-term in-plume ozone depletion was observed for about 10 d by the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) right after the January 2022 Hunga Tonga–Hunga Ha'apai (HTHH) eruption. This work analyzes the dynamic and chemical causes of this ozone depletion. The results show that the large water injection (∼ 150 Tg) from the HTHH eruption, with ∼ 0.0013 Tg injection of ClO (or ∼ 0.0009 Tg of HCl), causes ozone loss due to strongly enhanced HOx and ClOx cycles and their interactions. Aside from the gas-phase chemistry, the heterogeneous reaction rate for HOCl + HCl → Cl2 + H2O increases to 104 cm−3 s−1 and is a major cause of chlorine activation, making this event unique compared with the springtime polar ozone depletion where HCl + ClONO2 is more important. The large water injection causes relative humidity over ice to increase to 70 %–100 %, decreases the H2SO4 / H2O binary solution weight percent to 35 % compared with the 70 % ambient value, and decreases the plume temperature by 2–6 K. These changes lead to high heterogeneous reaction rates. Plume lofting of ozone-poor air is evident during the first 2 d after the eruption, but ozone concentrations quickly recover because its chemical lifetime is short at 20 hPa. With such a large seawater injection, we expect that ∼ 5 Tg Cl was lifted into the stratosphere by the HTHH eruption in the form of NaCl, but only ∼ 0.02 % of that remained as active chlorine in the stratosphere. Lightning NOx changes are probably not the reason for the HTHH initial in-plume O3 loss.
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hal-04301369 , version 1 (23-11-2023)

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Yunqian Zhu, Robert W Portmann, Douglas Kinnison, Owen Brian Toon, Luis Millán, et al.. Stratospheric ozone depletion inside the volcanic plume shortly after the 2022 Hunga Tonga eruption. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 2023, 23 (20), pp.13355-13367. ⟨10.5194/acp-23-13355-2023⟩. ⟨hal-04301369⟩
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