Prévention et résolution des conflits d’usages en droit de la mer : quelques réflexions dans le cadre régional de l’océan Indien

Abstract : The notion of conflict of uses refers to the encounter of two competing and incompatible uses of the sea or its resources. Competition or incompatibility is both legal, resulting from the existence of potentially competing rights or duties and from different standards, and geographical, resulting from the impossibility of carrying out both uses simultaneously or even successively. However, the conduct to be adopted by States in the event of conflict of uses is not specified by the international law of the sea. Indeed, the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea only refers to the obligation to « take reasonable account » of the rights and obligations of other States. The latter must cooperate in the implementation of their rights and obligations in good faith. The «reasonable» standard does not allow a decision to be made in the event that the conflicting uses are equally legitimate. The international judge has therefore adopted a case-by-case approach in order to distinguish between the uses of the sea and possibly give priority to one or the other. However, the interpretation of these standards of behaviour shows that a more precise methodology could be used in the event of a conflict of use. The conduct of environmental and social impact studies, for example, can contribute to their prevention and resolution. Nonetheless, those tools are not easy to implement as regards the tense geopolitical context of the region..
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Pascale Ricard. Prévention et résolution des conflits d’usages en droit de la mer : quelques réflexions dans le cadre régional de l’océan Indien. Carnets de Recherches de l'océan Indien, Université de La Réunion, 2019, Réalités et imaginaires maritimes. ⟨hal-02474936⟩

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