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A Molecular Web: Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress, Inflammation, and Oxidative Stress

Abstract : Execution of fundamental cellular functions demands regulated protein folding homeostasis. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an active organelle existing to implement this function by folding and modifying secretory and membrane proteins. Loss of protein folding homeostasis is central to various diseases and budding evidences suggest ER stress as being a major contributor in the development or pathology of a diseased state besides other cellular stresses. The trigger for diseases may be diverse but, inflammation and/or ER stress may be basic mechanisms increasing the severity or complicating the condition of the disease. Chronic ER stress and activation of the unfolded-protein response (UPR) throughendogenousorexogenousinsultsmayresultinimpairedcalciumandredoxhomeostasis, oxidative stress via protein overload thereby also influencing vital mitochondrial functions. Calcium released from the ER augments the production of mitochondrial ReactiveOxygenSpecies(ROS).ToxicaccumulationofROSwithinERandmitochondriadisturbs fundamental organelle functions. Sustained ER stress is known to potentially elicit inflammatoryresponsesviaUPRpathways.Additionally,ROSgeneratedthroughinflammationor mitochondrial dysfunction could accelerate ER malfunction. Dysfunctional UPR pathways have been associated with a wide range of diseases including several neurodegenerative diseases, stroke, metabolic disorders, cancer, inflammatory disease, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and others. In this review, we have discussed the UPR signaling pathways, and networking between ER stress-induced inflammatory pathways, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial signaling events, which further induce or exacerbate ER stress.
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Submitted on : Wednesday, May 12, 2021 - 9:34:07 AM
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Namrata Chaudhari, Priti Talwar, Avinash Parimisetty, Christian Lefebvre d'Hellencourt, Palaniyandi Ravanan. A Molecular Web: Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress, Inflammation, and Oxidative Stress. Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience, 2014, 8 (1), pp.e1281862. ⟨10.3389/fncel.2014.00213⟩. ⟨hal-02304218⟩



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