D. H. Abbott, W. D. Mooney, and J. A. Vantongeren, The character of the Moho and lower crust within Archean cratons and the tectonic implications, Tectonophysics, vol.609, pp.690-705, 2013.
DOI : 10.1016/j.tecto.2013.09.014

P. Agrawal, O. Pandey, and J. Negi, Madagascar: A continental fragment of the paleo-super Dharwar craton of India, Geology, vol.20, issue.6, pp.543-546, 1992.
DOI : 10.1130/0091-7613(1992)020<0543:MACFOT>2.3.CO;2

J. Andriamarofahatra, H. De-la-boisse, and C. Nicollet, Datation u-pb sur monazites et zircons du dernier épisode tectono-métamorphique granulitique majeur dans le Sud-Est de Madagascar, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris, issue.2, pp.310-1643, 1990.

I. M. Artemieva and H. Thybo, EUNAseis: A seismic model for Moho and crustal structure in Europe, Greenland, and the North Atlantic region, Tectonophysics, vol.609, pp.97-153, 2013.
DOI : 10.1016/j.tecto.2013.08.004

J. Bardintzeff, J. Liégeois, B. Bonin, H. Bellon, and G. Rasamimanana, Madagascar volcanic provinces linked to the Gondwana break-up: Geochemical and isotopic evidences for contrasting mantle sources, Gondwana Research, vol.18, issue.2-3, pp.295-314, 2010.
DOI : 10.1016/j.gr.2009.11.010

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00463897

G. Barruol, K. Sigloch, and R. Group, RHUM-RUM experiment, 2011-2015, code YV (Réunion Hotspot and Upper Mantle -Réunion's Unterer Mantel), pp.10-15778, 2012.

G. Bensen, M. Ritzwoller, M. Barmin, A. Levshin, F. Lin et al., Processing seismic ambient noise data to obtain reliable broad-band surface wave dispersion measurements, Geophysical Journal International, vol.169, issue.3, pp.1239-1260, 2007.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1365-246X.2007.03374.x

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00310198

H. Besairie and M. Collignon, Géologie de Madagascar: Les terrains sédimentaires, Imprimerie Nationale The velocity of compressional waves in rocks to 10 kilobars: 2, Antananarivo. Birch, F. J. Geophys. Res, issue.7, pp.66-2199, 1961.

R. J. Blakely, Potential Theory in Gravity and Magnetic Applications, 1996.
DOI : 10.1017/CBO9780511549816

J. Boast and A. Nairn, An outline of the geology of Madagascar, in The Ocean Basins and Margins, pp.649-696, 1982.

S. D. Boger, C. Ferreira, W. Hirdes, B. Schulte, T. Jennet et al., Carte geologique de Madagascar 1: 500 000, feuilles n ? 10 ? Fianarantsoa, 2008.

S. D. Boger, C. Ferreira, W. Hirdes, B. Schulte, T. Jennet et al., Carte geologique de Madagascar 1: 500 000, feuilles n ? 11-Ampanihy, 12-Tôlanaro, 2008.

?. Morondava, Ministère de l'Energie et des Mines

S. D. Boger, W. Hirdes, C. Ferreira, B. Schulte, T. Jenett et al., From passive margin to volcano???sedimentary forearc: The Tonian to Cryogenian evolution of the Anosyen Domain of southeastern Madagascar, Precambrian Research, vol.247, pp.159-186, 2014.
DOI : 10.1016/j.precamres.2014.04.004

S. D. Boger, W. Hirdes, C. Ferreira, T. Jenett, R. Dallwig et al., The 580???520Ma Gondwana suture of Madagascar and its continuation into Antarctica and Africa, Gondwana Research, vol.28, issue.3, pp.1048-1060, 2015.
DOI : 10.1016/j.gr.2014.08.017

N. Christensen, Poisson's ratio and crustal seismology, Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, vol.374, issue.2494, pp.3139-3156, 1996.
DOI : 10.1029/95JB03446

M. F. Coffin and P. D. Rabinowitz, Evolution of the conjugate East African - Madagascan margins and the western Somali Basin, Geol. Soc. Am. Spec. Pap, vol.78, issue.226, 1988.
DOI : 10.1130/SPE226-p1

A. Collins, The Tectonic Evolution of Madagascar: Its Place in the East African Orogen, Gondwana Research, vol.3, issue.4, pp.549-552, 2000.
DOI : 10.1016/S1342-937X(05)70760-7

A. S. Collins, Madagascar and the amalgamation of Central Gondwana, Gondwana Research, vol.9, issue.1-2, pp.3-16, 2006.
DOI : 10.1016/j.gr.2005.10.001

A. S. Collins and S. A. Pisarevsky, Amalgamating eastern Gondwana: The evolution of the Circum-Indian Orogens, Earth-Science Reviews, vol.71, issue.3-4, pp.229-270, 2005.
DOI : 10.1016/j.earscirev.2005.02.004

A. S. Collins and B. F. Windley, The Tectonic Evolution of Central and Northern Madagascar and Its Place in the Final Assembly of Gondwana, The Journal of Geology, vol.110, issue.3, pp.325-339, 2002.
DOI : 10.1086/339535

J. F. Dewey, Extensional collapse of orogens, Extensional collapse of orogens, pp.1123-1139, 1988.
DOI : 10.1029/TC007i006p01123

M. J. De-wit, : Heads It's a Continent, Tails It's an Island, Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, vol.31, issue.1, pp.213-248, 2003.
DOI : 10.1146/annurev.earth.31.100901.141337

M. J. De-wit, S. A. Bowring, L. D. Ashwal, L. G. Randrianasolo, V. P. Morel et al., Age and tectonic evolution of Neoproterozoic ductile shear zones in southwestern Madagascar, with implications for Gondwana studies, Tectonics, vol.20, issue.1, pp.1-45, 2001.
DOI : 10.1029/2000TC900026

C. Dissanayake and R. Chandrajith, Sri Lanka???Madagascar Gondwana Linkage: Evidence for a Pan???African Mineral Belt, The Journal of Geology, vol.107, issue.2, pp.223-235, 1999.
DOI : 10.1086/314342

R. J. Durrheim and W. D. Mooney, Archean and Proterozoic crustal evolution: Evidence from crustal seismology, Geology, vol.19, issue.6, pp.606-609, 1991.
DOI : 10.1130/0091-7613(1991)019<0606:AAPCEE>2.3.CO;2

R. J. Durrheim and W. D. Mooney, Evolution of the Precambrian lithosphere: Seismological and geochemical constraints, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.70, issue.41, pp.359-15374, 1994.
DOI : 10.1029/94JB00138

A. M. Dziewonski and D. L. Anderson, Preliminary reference Earth model, Preliminary reference earth model, pp.297-356, 1981.
DOI : 10.1016/0031-9201(81)90046-7

B. Efron and R. Tibshirani, Statistical Data Analysis in the, 1990.

J. Fourno and J. Roussel, Imaging of the Moho depth in Madagascar through the inversion of gravity data: geodynamic implications, Terra Nova, vol.96, issue.2, pp.512-519, 1994.
DOI : 10.1190/1.1442180

M. Geiger, D. N. Clark, and W. Mette, Reappraisal of the timing of the breakup of Gondwana based on sedimentological and seismic evidence from the Morondava Basin, Madagascar, Journal of African Earth Sciences, vol.38, issue.4, pp.363-381, 2004.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jafrearsci.2004.02.003

C. Geofon-data, Geofon seismic network, 1993.

J. G. Ghosh, M. J. De-wit, and R. Zartman, Age and tectonic evolution of Neoproterozoic ductile shear zones in the Southern Granulite Terrain of India, with implications for Gondwana studies, Tectonics, vol.83, issue.4, pp.10-1029, 2004.
DOI : 10.1029/2002TC001444

J. Giese, A. Berger, G. Schreurs, and E. Gnos, The timing of the tectono-metamorphic evolution at the Neoproterozoic???Phanerozoic boundary in central southern Madagascar, Precambrian Research, vol.185, issue.3-4, pp.131-148, 2011.
DOI : 10.1016/j.precamres.2011.01.002

J. Giese, D. Seward, and G. Schreurs, Low-temperature evolution of the Morondava rift basin shoulder in western Madagascar: An apatite fission track study, Tectonics, vol.27, issue.3, pp.10-1029, 2012.
DOI : 10.1029/2011TC002921

J. Giese, G. Schreurs, A. Berger, and M. Herwegh, Kinematics and significance of a poly-deformed crustal-scale shear zone in central to south-eastern Madagascar: the Itremo???Ikalamavony thrust, International Journal of Earth Sciences, vol.83, issue.B06210, pp.1-1810, 2016.
DOI : 10.1016/j.precamres.2010.12.008

R. Herrmann and C. Ammon, Computer Programs in Seismology: Surface Waves, Receiver Functions and Crustal Structure, 2002.

F. Horton, B. Hacker, A. Kylander-clark, R. Holder, and N. Jöns, Focused radiogenic heating of middle crust caused ultrahigh temperatures in southern Madagascar, Tectonics, vol.171, issue.7, pp.293-31410, 2016.
DOI : 10.1029/95JB00191

N. Jöns and V. Schenk, Relics of the Mozambique Ocean in the central East African Orogen: evidence from the Vohibory Block of southern Madagascar, Journal of Metamorphic Geology, vol.30, issue.0, pp.17-28, 2008.
DOI : 10.1029/2000TC900026

N. Jöns and V. Schenk, The ultrahigh temperature granulites of southern Madagascar in a polymetamorphic context: Implications for the amalgamation of the Gondwana supercontinent, Eur. J. Mineral, vol.23, issue.2, pp.127-156, 2011.

J. Julià and J. Mejia, Ratio Variation in the Iberian Crust, Geophysical Journal International, vol.156, issue.1, pp.59-72, 2004.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1365-246X.2004.02127.x

J. Julià, C. J. Ammon, R. B. Herrmann, and A. M. Correig, Joint inversion of receiver function and surface wave dispersion observations, Geophys, J. Int, vol.143, pp.99-112, 2000.

J. Julià, C. J. Ammon, and A. A. Nyblade, Evidence for mafic lower crust in Tanzania, East Africa, from joint inversion of receiver functions and Rayleigh wave dispersion velocities, Geophysical Journal International, vol.162, issue.2, pp.555-569, 2005.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1365-246X.2005.02685.x

J. Julià, S. Jagadeesh, S. Rai, and T. Owens, Deep crustal structure of the Indian shield from joint inversion of P wave receiver functions and Rayleigh wave group velocities: Implications for Precambrian crustal evolution, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.90, issue.B2, pp.1031310-1029, 2009.
DOI : 10.1029/2008JB006261

M. Katz and C. Premoli, India and Madagascar in Gondwanaland based on matching Precambrian lineaments, Nature, vol.18, issue.5711, pp.312-315, 1979.
DOI : 10.1038/244501a0

B. Kennett and E. Engdahl, Traveltimes for global earthquake location and phase identification, Geophysical Journal International, vol.105, issue.2, pp.429-465, 1991.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1365-246X.1991.tb06724.x

B. Kennett, E. Engdahl, and R. Buland, Constraints on seismic velocities in the Earth from traveltimes, Constraints on seismic velocities in the Earth from traveltimes, pp.108-124, 1995.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1365-246X.1995.tb03540.x

R. Kind, X. Yuan, J. Saul, D. Nelson, S. Sobolev et al., Seismic Images of Crust and Upper Mantle Beneath Tibet: Evidence for Eurasian Plate Subduction, Science, vol.298, issue.5596, pp.298-1219, 2002.
DOI : 10.1126/science.1078115

A. Kröner, The Precambrian geotectonic evolution of Africa: plate accretion versus plate destruction, Precambrian Research, vol.4, issue.2, pp.163-213, 1977.
DOI : 10.1016/0301-9268(77)90045-6

S. Kufner, Deep India meets deep Asia: Lithospheric indentation, delamination and break-off under Pamir and Hindu Kush (Central Asia), Earth and Planetary Science Letters, vol.435, pp.171-184, 2016.
DOI : 10.1016/j.epsl.2015.11.046

URL : http://hdl.handle.net/1885/103519

J. Lardeaux, J. Martelat, C. Nicollet, E. Pili, R. Rakotondrazafy et al., Metamorphism and Tectonics in Southern Madagascar: An Overview, Metamorphism and tectonics in southern Madagascar: An overview, pp.355-362, 1999.
DOI : 10.1016/S1342-937X(05)70274-4

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00232798

J. P. Ligorría and C. J. Ammon, Iterative deconvolution and receiver-function estimation, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am, vol.89, issue.5, pp.1395-1400, 1999.

G. Markl, J. Bäuerle, and D. Grujic, Metamorphic evolution of Pan-African granulite facies metapelites from Southern Madagascar, Precambrian Research, vol.102, issue.1-2, pp.47-68, 2000.
DOI : 10.1016/S0301-9268(99)00099-6

J. Martelat, J. Lardeaux, C. Nicollet, and R. Rakotondrazafy, Strain pattern and late Precambrian deformation history in southern Madagascar, Precambrian Research, vol.102, issue.1-2, pp.1-20, 2000.
DOI : 10.1016/S0301-9268(99)00083-2

J. Martelat, B. Randrianasolo, K. Schulmann, J. Lardeaux, and J. Devidal, Airborne magnetic data compared to petrology of crustal scale shear zones from southern Madagascar: A tool for deciphering magma and fluid transfer in orogenic crust, Journal of African Earth Sciences, vol.94, pp.74-85, 2014.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jafrearsci.2013.07.003

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01216963

B. Moine, A. Nedelec, and E. Ortega, Geology and metallogeny of the Precambrian basement of Madagascar, Journal of African Earth Sciences, vol.94, pp.1-176, 2014.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jafrearsci.2014.01.016

B. G. Muller, The evolution and significance of the Bongolava-Ranotsara shear zone, Madagascar, 2011.

J. E. Nafe and C. L. Drake, Physical properties of marine sediments, Tech. Rep., Lamont Geol. Obs, 1961.

A. Nédélec, B. Ralison, J. Bouchez, and V. Grégoire, Structure and metamorphism of the granitic basement around Antananarivo: A key to the Pan-African history of central Madagascar and its Gondwana connections, Tectonics, issue.5, pp.19-997, 2000.

J. Paquette and A. Nédélec, A new insight into Pan-African tectonics in the East???West Gondwana collision zone by U???Pb zircon dating of granites from central Madagascar, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, vol.155, issue.1-2, pp.45-56, 1998.
DOI : 10.1016/S0012-821X(97)00205-7

J. Paquette, A. Nédélec, B. Moine, and M. Rakotondrazafy, U-Pb, Single Zircon Pb-Evaporation, and Sm-Nd Isotopic Study of a Granulite Domain in SE Madagascar, The Journal of Geology, vol.102, issue.5, pp.523-538, 1994.
DOI : 10.1086/629696

M. E. Pasyanos and A. A. Nyblade, A top to bottom lithospheric study of Africa and Arabia, Tectonophysics, vol.444, issue.1-4, pp.27-44, 2007.
DOI : 10.1016/j.tecto.2007.07.008

A. Piqué, E. Laville, G. Bignot, M. Rabarimanana, and C. Thouin, L'ouverture et le d??veloppement du bassin de Morondava (Madagascar) du Carbonif??re sup??rieur au Jurassique moyen. Donn??es stratigraphiques, s??dimentaires, pal??ontologiques et structurales, Journal of African Earth Sciences, vol.28, issue.4, pp.931-948, 1999.
DOI : 10.1016/S0899-5362(99)00070-6

A. Rai, V. Gaur, S. Rai, and K. Priestley, Seismic signatures of the Pan-African orogeny: implications for southern Indian high-grade terranes, Geophysical Journal International, vol.176, issue.2, pp.518-528, 2009.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1365-246X.2008.03965.x

M. Rakotondrainibe, . Madagascar, G. Rambolamanana, P. Suhadolc, and G. Panza, Contribution à l'étude de la séismicité de Madagascar Simultaneous inversion of hypocentral parameters and structure velocity of the central region of Madagascar as a premise for the mitigation of seismic hazard in Antananarivo, Pure Appl. Geophys, vol.149, issue.4, pp.707-730, 1977.

N. Rawlinson and M. Sambridge, Wave front evolution in strongly heterogeneous layered media using the fast marching method, Geophysical Journal International, vol.156, issue.3, pp.631-647, 2004.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1365-246X.2004.02153.x

N. Rawlinson and M. Sambridge, The fast marching method: an effective tool for tomographic imaging and tracking multiple phases in complex layered media, Exploration Geophysics, vol.36, issue.4, pp.341-350, 2005.
DOI : 10.1071/EG05341

M. Reiss, G. Rumpker, F. Tilmann, X. Yuan, J. Giese et al., Seismic anisotropy of the lithosphere and asthenosphere beneath southern Madagascar from teleseismic shear wave splitting analysis and waveform modeling, Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, vol.392, issue.3, pp.6627-664310, 1002.
DOI : 10.1016/j.epsl.2014.02.032

E. J. Rindraharisaona, M. Guidarelli, A. Aoudia, and G. Rambolamanana, Earth structure and instrumental seismicity of Madagascar: Implications on the seismotectonics, Earth structure and instrumental seismicity of Madagascar: Implications on the seismotectonics, pp.165-181, 2013.
DOI : 10.1016/j.tecto.2013.03.033

G. G. Roberts, J. D. Paul, N. White, and J. Winterbourne, Temporal and spatial evolution of dynamic support from river profiles: A framework for Madagascar, Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, vol.453, issue.B8, pp.10-1029, 2012.
DOI : 10.1029/2012GC004040

R. Rudnick and S. Gao, Composition of the continental crust, Treatise Geochem, pp.1-64, 2003.

R. L. Rudnick and D. M. Fountain, Nature and composition of the continental crust: A lower crustal perspective, Reviews of Geophysics, vol.55, issue.3, pp.267-309, 1995.
DOI : 10.1029/95RG01302

H. Schandelmeier, F. Bremer, and H. Holl, Kinematic evolution of the Morondava rift basin of SW Madagascar??????from wrench tectonics to normal extension, Journal of African Earth Sciences, vol.38, issue.4, pp.321-330, 2004.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jafrearsci.2003.11.002

G. Schreurs, J. Giese, A. Berger, and E. Gnos, A new perspective on the significance of the Ranotsara shear zone in Madagascar, International Journal of Earth Sciences, vol.83, issue.8, pp.99-1827, 2010.
DOI : 10.1007/s00531-009-0490-9

R. Shackleton, The final collision zone between East and West Gondwana: where is it?, Journal of African Earth Sciences, vol.23, issue.3, pp.271-287, 1996.
DOI : 10.1016/S0899-5362(97)00002-X

M. Storey, J. J. Mahoney, A. D. Saunders, R. A. Duncan, S. P. Kelley et al., Timing of Hot Spot--Related Volcanism and the Breakup of Madagascar and India, Science, vol.267, issue.5199, pp.267-852, 1995.
DOI : 10.1126/science.267.5199.852

M. Storey, J. J. Mahoney, and A. D. Saunders, Cretaceous basalts in Madagascar and the transition between plume and continental lithosphere mantle sources, Large Igneous Provinces: Continental, Oceanic, and Planetary Flood Volcanism, pp.95-122, 1997.
DOI : 10.1029/GM100p0095

R. Tucker, L. Ashwal, M. Handke, M. Hamilton, M. L. Grange et al., U???Pb Geochronology and Isotope Geochemistry of the Archean and Proterozoic Rocks of North???Central Madagascar, The Journal of Geology, vol.107, issue.2, pp.135-153, 1999.
DOI : 10.1086/314337

R. Tucker, J. Roig, P. Macey, C. Delor, Y. Amelin et al., A new geological framework for south-central Madagascar, and its relevance to the ???out-of-Africa??? hypothesis, Precambrian Research, vol.185, issue.3-4, pp.109-130, 2011.
DOI : 10.1016/j.precamres.2010.12.008

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00669773

R. D. Tucker, J. Roig, B. Moine, C. Delor, and S. Peters, A geological synthesis of the Precambrian shield in Madagascar, Journal of African Earth Sciences, vol.94, pp.9-30, 2014.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jafrearsci.2014.02.001

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01171367

F. Tugume, A. Nyblade, and J. Julià, Moho depths and Poisson's ratios of Precambrian crust in East Africa: Evidence for similarities in Archean and Proterozoic crustal structure, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, vol.355, issue.356, pp.73-81, 2012.
DOI : 10.1016/j.epsl.2012.08.041

A. B. Watts, U. S. Ten, and . Brink, Crustal structure, flexure, and subsidence history of the Hawaiian Islands, Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, vol.72, issue.B8, pp.10473-10500, 1995.
DOI : 10.1029/JB094iB08p10473

B. Windley, A. Razafiniparany, T. Razakamanana, and D. Ackermand, Tectonic framework of the Precambrian of Madagascar and its Gondwana connections: a review and reappraisal, Geologische Rundschau, vol.11, issue.1, pp.642-659, 1994.
DOI : 10.1007/BF01083234

M. Wysession, D. Wiens, and A. Nyblade, Investigation of sources of intraplate volcanism using PASSCAL broadband instruments in Madagascar, the Comores, and Mozambique,International Federation of Digital Seismograph Networks, pp.10-7914, 2012.

X. Yuan, Subduction and collision processes in the central Andes constrained by converted seismic phases, Nature, issue.6815, pp.408-958, 2000.

L. Zhu and H. Kanamori, Moho depth variation in southern California from teleseismic receiver functions, Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, vol.75, issue.44, pp.2969-2980, 2000.
DOI : 10.1029/1999JB900322