Balance control during gait initiation: State-of-the-art and research perspectives

Abstract : It is well known that balance control is affected by aging, neurological and orthopedic conditions. Poor balance control during gait and postural maintenance are associated with disability, falls and increased mortality. Gait initiation-the transient period between the quiet standing posture and steady state walking-is a functional task that is classically used in the literature to investigate how the central nervous system (CNS) controls balance during a whole-body movement involving change in the base of support dimensions and center of mass progression. Understanding how the CNS in able-bodied subjects exerts this control during such a challenging task is a prerequisite to identifying motor disorders in populations also provide clinicians with objective measures to assess interventions according to individual impairments. The present review thus proposes a state-of-the-art analysis on: (1) the balance control mechanisms in play during gait initiation in able bodied subjects and in the case of some frail populations; and (2) the biomechanical parameters used in the literature to quantify dynamic stability during gait initiation. Balance control mechanisms reviewed in this article included anticipatory postural adjustments, stance leg stiffness, foot placement, lateral ankle strategy, swing foot strike pattern and vertical center of mass braking. Based on this review, the following viewpoints were put forward: (1) dynamic stability during Submit a Manuscript: http://www.f6publishing.com
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World Journal of Orthopedics, 2017, 8 (11), pp.815 - 828. 〈10.5312/wjo.v8.i11.815〉
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Eric Yiou, Teddy Caderby, Arnaud Delafontaine, Paul Fourcade, Jean-Louis Honeine. Balance control during gait initiation: State-of-the-art and research perspectives. World Journal of Orthopedics, 2017, 8 (11), pp.815 - 828. 〈10.5312/wjo.v8.i11.815〉. 〈hal-01648219〉

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