The Seismic anisotropy of the Earth's mantle: From single crystal to polycrystal

Abstract : The anisotropic single crystal seismic properties are reviewed in the light of recent experimental and theoretical determinations. Although considerable progress has been made on the determination of single crystal properties, data are still lacking, particularly for the temperature derivatives of transition zone and lower mantle phases. The common types of LPO of olivine, opx and cpx are presented together with their associated seismic properties. It is emphasized that simple seismic symmetry pattern of upper mantle rocks are a direct result of the interaction of olivine, opx and cpx. Using the standard structural frame (X lineation, Z pole to foliation) for typical LPOs of olivine, opx and cpx have the maximum Vp parallel to X, in the XZ plane and parallel to Y respectively. Destructive interference occurs between these minerals and hence P-wave anisotropy should be sensitive to the aggregate composition. For shear wave splitting (dVs) typical olivine and opx LPOs result in similar patterns with the maximum dVs in the YZ plane and the fast split shear wave (Vs1) polarized parallel to the foliation. A typical cpx LPO on the other hand produces destructive interference as the max dVs is close to X. By comparison with experiments and numerical simulations, it is estimated that upper mantle samples have an olivine LPO strength which recorded shear strain gamma of between 0.25 and 2.0. Pyrolite and piclogite models are compared with global transverse isotropic models. The slowly reducing P-wave anisotropy in the first 200 km can be explained by a model with constant composition and LPO strength. The sharp decrease in the observed anisotropy in the global models cannot be explained by the transformation of opx to cpx at 300 km, it is proposed that this decrease is due to a reduction in LPO strength from 200 to 350 km at the base of the lithosphere.
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Shun-Ichiro Karato; Alessandro Forte; Robert Liebermann; Guy Masters; Lars Stixrude. Earth's Deep Interior: Mineral Physics and Tomography From the Atomic Scale to the Global Scale, 117, American Geophysical Union, pp.237 - 264, 2000, Geophysical Monograph Series, 9780875909752. 〈10.1029/GM117p0237〉. 〈http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1029/GM117p0237/summary〉
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D Mainprice, Guilhem Barruol, Walid Ben Ismaïl. The Seismic anisotropy of the Earth's mantle: From single crystal to polycrystal. Shun-Ichiro Karato; Alessandro Forte; Robert Liebermann; Guy Masters; Lars Stixrude. Earth's Deep Interior: Mineral Physics and Tomography From the Atomic Scale to the Global Scale, 117, American Geophysical Union, pp.237 - 264, 2000, Geophysical Monograph Series, 9780875909752. 〈10.1029/GM117p0237〉. 〈http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1029/GM117p0237/summary〉. 〈hal-01391524〉

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