Infections à virus Chikungunya chez l’enfant

Abstract : Chikungunya fever is an arbovirosis caused by an alphavirus (CHIKV) belonging to the Togaviridae familly. Its main vectors are Aedes mosquitoes. In its classic form, Chikungunya consists in a flulike illness that can be very disabling, especially by incapacitating arthralgia. In children, the arthropathy is well known to be better tolerated than in adulthood but severe manifestations and complications can occur owing to neurologic, cardiac, hematologic or cutaneous dysfunctions, all carrying a fatality risk in the absence of appropriate intensive care. Out of these, the most singular is a severe encephalopathy, even in some cases genuine encephalitis. More rare, but quite specific of small infants, skin blisters have been reported, sometimes complicated by extensive detachments. Mother-to-child infections were demonstrated on La Réunion island with a fifty-percent probability of vertical transmission when the mother was highly viremic around the term of pregnancy. The diagnosis can be made by detecting CHIKV RNA using RT-PCR or specific IgM antibodies using MAC-Elisa serology. Chikungunya is a notifiable disease. The epidemic that emerged in Indian Ocean islands during 2005-2006, its progressive extension to Asia and even to Italy in July 2007, highlighted a very important capacity of CHIKV to cause huge outbreaks wherever Aedes sp. can proliferate. In France, Aedes albopictus is definitively endemic in the departments of Alpes-Maritimes since 2004, Corsica since 2005, and Var since 2007. Therefore, the risk of introduction of CHIKV from an epidemic area to Europe and especially in France is real.
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H. Haas, Stéphanie Robin, Duksha Ramful, L. Houdon, P. Minodier, et al.. Infections à virus Chikungunya chez l’enfant. Archives de Pédiatrie, Elsevier, 2009, Zoonoses en pédiatrie : Quoi de neuf en 2008 ? 24es Journées annuelles du Groupe de Pathologie Infectieuse Pédiatrique, 16 (Supplément 2), pp.S72--S79. ⟨10.1016/S0929-693X(09)75305-9⟩. ⟨hal-01274637⟩

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